Teil 1: Unterschiede bei der Stabilitätsausnutzung

Der Eurocode EN 1993-1-1 bietet grundsätzlich zwei Verfahren für den Stabilitätsnachweis von Stäben an:

(1) basierend auf Abminderungsfaktoren (Knickkurven) und

(2) basierend auf äquivalenten (eigenformaffinen) geometrischen Imperfektionen.

In diesem Artikel wird untersucht, wie sich diese beiden Methoden in Bezug auf die endgültige Stabauslastung Im Vergleich verhalten. Der Einfachheit halber betrachten wir nur eine einfache zentrisch beanspruchte Druckstütze, die auf Biegeknicken versagt. Für Fall (1) wird Kapitel 6.3.1 verwendet, während für Fall (2) angenommen wird, dass die Imperfektionen die Form der zum ersten Eigenwert gehörenden Knickfigur annehmen, und das entsprechende Kapitel ist 5.3.2 (11).

Offensichtlich sollten diese zwei Standardverfahren die gleiche Ausnutzung für das gleiche Problem ergeben. Dies ist jedoch im Allgemeinen bei weitem nicht der Fall.


A warehouse bulding model to learn more about the critical temperature feautre

Consteel 14 is a powerful analysis and design software for structural engineers. Watch our video how to get started with Consteel.


Consteel 14 is a powerful analysis and design software for structural engineers. Watch our video how to get started with Consteel.



There are different ways to evaluate the stability of a structure. It is important to know the differences between those methods and the limits of applicability but it is also important to recognize the equalities in pure cases.

Methods of stability design

In Eurocode 1993-1-1, and so in Consteel, there are 3 methods to verify the stability of a model:

The structural model is subjected to appropriate geometrical imperfections and after completing a second order analysis, only the cross section resistances need to be checked

       The method is based on two essential simplifications:

  1. Structural member isolation: The relevant member is isolated from the global structural model by applying special boundary conditions (supports, restraints or loads) at the connection points which are taken into account in the calculation of the buckling resistance
  2. Buckling mode separation: The buckling of the member is calculated separately for the pure modes: flexural buckling for pure compression and lateral-torsional buckling for pure bending. The two effects are connected by applying special interaction factors.

In everyday practice frames of pre-engineered metal buildings are often designed as 2D structures. Industrial buildings often have partial mezzanine floors, attached to one of the main columns, to suit the technology. Additionally, such buildings often have above the roof platforms for machineries.

When it comes to seismic design, as long as seismicity is not deemed to be a strongly controlling factor for final design, the mezzanines are just attached to the same type of frames as used at other non-seismic locations and are locally strengthened, if necessary. Only the horizontal component of the seismic effect is considered in most of the cases.


The main objective of the research paper is to present the technical and economical results obtained for standardized structures with small and medium spans. The obtained results can represent a starting point for designers as well as for investors, who intend to build single storey steel structures. According to the research, there have been identified a series of interrelated factors which may represent sources of savings in the optimization process. The authors highlight the work strategy in creating standardized structural systems that will improve product performances. The paper analyzes three standardized configurations including the following structural solutions: frame structures made of hot rolled beams and columns, thin-walled frame structures and structures using trusses and rectangular hollow sections columns. All configurations have been analyzed using Consteel 7.0 design software, for Bucharest region, loads evaluation being performed according to the current standards. Free height of the building varies between 4.00m and 6.00m, bay between
4.00m and 5.00m, and the span between 8.00m and 12.00m. The article presents the principle of the structural configurations and gives reference charts in order to estimate the steel consumption per square meter, aiming structural performance in what concerns price per square meter and execution time.

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Zs Nagy, A Jurcut, A Pop, I Mois: Technical and economical performance of thin-walled steel structures vs. Hot rolled profiles, Tendințe actuale în Ingineria structurilor Metalice, Lucrările celei de-a Xiii-a conferințe naționale de Construcții metalice, București, 21-22 noiembrie 2013

The authors will describe in the following pages the reasons why the project of the Multi-functional Sports Hall from Cluj Napoca is attractive. The main lines of the building are: a hall with a capacity of 7000 seats, a structure dominated by precast concrete elements, a long span roof and an advanced analysis of the connections, all well-kept into the limited funds. The roof solution consists in using steel space trusses made out of square hollow sections (SHS). The truss has a clear span of 63.90m, a total length of 76,10m, a maximum height of 4,00m that is reduced on the length of the structural
element, and a triangular cross section being 3,60m wide. Global stability checks and specific local stability problems were performed and are exposed in the following paper. For the fabrication of the space truss, welded joints between the SHS profiles were designed. As a result of the fact that for characteristic failure checks of the welded TT and KK joints analytical methods are based only on a semi-empirical formulae, developed for Φ=90 degrees (the angle between the diagonal planes), for the design of joints finite element modelling was used. Good agreement between the results of the developed finite element joint model and the analytical method for TT and KK joints has been found, even though the semi-empirical formulae are applied for the analysed truss which had Φ=50 degrees.

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Kiss Z, Karoly B, Toader Nicu, Nagy Zs: A long span structure in Romania – IABSE Kolkata Symposium 2013

The construction of Kopitnari International Airport was one of the most important Georgian brownfield investments in 2011-2012. The 5000 m2 steel terminal building with timber interior, a spectacular member of the complex, had been designed by the Dutch architect office UNStudio; under the egis of MTM Ltd. the super-structural design had been executed by CEOS Ltd. The whole project had to follow a tight time schedule: the design process started in autumn 2011; the Airport opened its gates on the 15th September, 2012. The structural design was performed by using Hungarian FEM software for analyses and the integrated BIM system, TEKLA for 3D modelling. The fabrication of the 500 tons steel structure was done by Hungarian Rutin Ltd. Every element was road-transported to the 3000 km far Kutaisi. The terminal’s structure arrived in 4 parts according to the layout-quarters. The erection process had been done by Rutin Ltd. as well, 10 workers spent 5 weeks in Georgia while finishing the complete structure. Design, BIM, fabrication and site work together led to the final result: The supporting structure was erected in time, no site corrections were needed. After finishing a Georgian member of the team made the statement: “Hungarian engineering and construction in Georgia guarantee the success!”

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Gazdus H, Futó T: Kopitnari International Airport – Structure of Terminal Building – Design, Fabrication, Erection 2012

Having as a starting point the idea of creating a structure with an iconic design, the current article presents all the technical solutions and steps followed in the process of creating this special structure. The structure, having the destination of a showroom for an auto dealer, is presented with an unconventional design of the roof: a roof structure having a double curvature. Starting from a relatively simple structural system, the evolution steps are presented together with the main setbacks, challenges, and the final solution: a completely redesigned structural system, with high-performance elements, both in strength and material consumption. The article also presents some stages of the structural analysis, with provisional results that shaped and determined the final design of some of the structural elements.

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CRISTEA Andrei-Crișan ,ALEXA Pavel: Structural design of a roof steel structure having double curvature Acta Technica Napocensis: Civil Engineering & Architecture Vol. 55, No. 3 (2012)