**Did you know that Consteel provides a plugin to integrate structural modeling and analysis into your parametric Grasshopper definitions?**

**Download** Pangolin from food4rhino.com or the Yak package manager of Rhino. You can also download it by logging in to our website. See Downloads/Plugins menu:

How will you possibly work in Pangolin? See the **related videos on our YouTube channel**, starting with the ‘**Introducing Pangolin**‘ video.

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In Consteel, the calculation of cross sectional interaction resistance for Class 3 and 4 sections is executed with the modified Formula 6.2 of EN 1993-1-1 with the consideration of warping and altering signs of component resistances. Let’s see how…

## Application of EN 1993-1-1 formula 6.2

For calculation of the resistance of a cross section subjected to combination of internal forces and bending moments, EN 1993-1-1 allows the usage -as a conservative approximation- a linear summation of the utilization ratios for each stress resultant, specified in formula 6.2.

$$\frac{N_{Ed}}{N_{Rd}}+\frac{M_{y,Ed}}{M_{y,Rd}}+\frac{M_{z,Ed}}{M_{z,Rd}}\leq 1$$

As Consteel uses the 7DOF finite element and so it is capable of calulcating bimoment, an extended form of the formula is used for interaction resistance calculation to consider the additional effect.

$$\frac{N_{Ed}}{N_{Rd}}+\frac{M_{y,Ed}}{M_{y,Rd}}+\frac{M_{z,Ed}}{M_{z,Rd}}+\frac{B_{Ed}}{B_{Rd}}\leq 1$$

Formula 6.2 ignores the fact that not every component results the highest stress at the same critical point of the cross-section.

In order to moderate this conservatism of the formula, Consteel applies a modified method for class 3 and 4 sections. Instead of calculating the maximal ratio for every force component using the minimal section moduli (W), Consteel finds the most critical point of the cross-section first (based on the sum of different normal stress components) and calculates the component ratios using the W values determined for this critical point. **Summation is done with considering the sign of the stresses caused by the components corresponding to the sign of the dominant stress in the critical point.**

(For class 1 and 2 sections, the complex plastic stress distribution cannot be determined by the software. The Formula 6.2 is used with the extension of bimoments to calculate interaction resistance, but no modification with altering signs is applied)

## Example

Let’s see an example for better explanation.

GATE**Did you know that you could use Consteel to calculate rotational stiffness for bolted column/beam moment bearing connections?**

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**Bolted connection**

**Bolted connection**

**Welded connection**

**Did you know that you could use Consteel to perform dual analysis with 7DOF beam and/or shell elements?**

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## Did you know that you could use Consteel to design web-tapered members?

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**Did you know that you could use Consteel to determine the optimum number of shear connectors for composite beams?**

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**Did you know that you could use Consteel to** **determine automatically the second order moment effects for slender reinforced concrete columns?**

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When applying design rules in load combination filter, the most frequently used utilization type is ** Steel – Dominant results**. What results are exactly considered by this option and what do corresponding limitations mean?

**Introduction**

There are four ways to apply load combination filter: based on limit states and load cases, manually, and by rules. Unlike the other three methods, **filter by rules is only possible based on analysis and/or design results.**

The most effective way to reduce the number of load combinations is definitely the use of design rules.

With design rules, load combinations can be selected based on utility ratios. Utilizations are available from several design checks, including dominant results and detailed verifications for steel elements, such as general elastic cross-section check, pure resistances, interactions, and global stability.

**The meaning of the dominant check**

The dominant check is not always the check which gives the maximal ratio but the one with the maximum RELEVANT ratio. Typical example: if plastic interaction formulas are valid, those results will be dominant over general elastic cross-section check results, although the latter are higher.

*Steel – Dominant results*

*Steel – Dominant results*

** Steel – Dominant results** option contains the utility ratio of the dominant check at every finite element node, in all load combinations. Meaning that there are as many utilization values as the number of load combinations calculated, in every FE node.

It is also important to understand the difference between the utilizations of ** Maximum of dominant results** and

**.**

*Steel -Dominant results***option contains the dominant utility ratio of the dominant load combination at every node, like an envelope of**

*Maximum of dominant results***. Meaning there is only one utilization value in every FE node. Also, it is the same as the dominant result table on**

*Steel-Dominant results***tab.**

*Global checks*When a rule is applied, the utilizations of the chosen utilization type are compared against the limitation. The load combinations which give the results that correspond to the limitation, are selected by the rule. Every FE node of the selected model portion is examined.

**Limitations in case of ***Steel – Dominant results*

*Steel – Dominant results*

: to select the combinations which cause the maximum utilization at any node. It can be the same as*Maximum*except if there are combinations where the utilization is the same and it is maximal. In this case, here all the combinations are selected, while with*Maximum of dominant results,*, there is always one maximum.*Maximum of dominant results*: to select the combinations as in ’*More than % of maximum*’ plus those which cause utilization that is more than the given percentage of the maximum. E.g. at a certain point max utility ratio is 80%, Limitation= More than 90% of maximum. This rule will select all the load combinations which cause utility ratios between 0,9*80=72% and 80%.*Maximum*: to select the combinations which cause utilization more than the defined value at any point.*More than*

Let’s see an example of a simple 2D frame for better explanation. Right-side beam is in the portion for which three design rules were applied. Five points are selected for representation but of course all the nodes of the portion are examined against the rules’ limitations.

The utilizations of the five dedicated FE node in all 11 load combinations are shown on the below diagram. (To find all of these utilizations in the attached model, global checks must be calculated for the load combinations one-by-one.)

gate## Introduction

In ConSteel, there are three options for designing reinforced concrete columns: the Manual Nominal Curvature Method, the Automatic Nominal Curvature Method, and the Nominal Stiffness Method.

Each method has its advantages and disadvantages and should be used in different situations. We will now briefly review these methods and show how they can be used. Example models and a flowchart guide is also available at the end of the overview.

You can find the related chapters within the Online Manual about how to access these features in the Structural design and Structural modeling chapters.

## Summary table

The following table summarizes the most important information about the three methods. Click on the table to see it in full screen.

We will now illustrate the application of these methods with a few short examples.

## Examples

### Manual Nominal Curvature Method

Create section

Define structure without imperfections

Define reinforcement

Define design parameters

First order analysis

Design

### Automatic Nominal Curvature Method

Only the steps presented, which are different from the Manual Nominal Curvature Method.

Imperfections

Design parameters

First order analysis – with imperfections

gate**Did you know that you could use Consteel to design a hot-rolled crane beam considering the effect of code-prescribed load eccentricities?**

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